中国当代文学研究会唯一官方网站

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: file_get_contents(jsapi_ticket.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 104

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 104
Function: file_get_contents

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 47
Function: get_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property 'expire_time' of non-object

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 48

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 48
Function: _error_handler

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: file_get_contents(access_token.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 104

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 104
Function: file_get_contents

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 69
Function: get_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Notice

Message: Trying to get property 'expire_time' of non-object

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 70

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 70
Function: _error_handler

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: Creating default object from empty value

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 77

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 77
Function: _error_handler

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fopen(access_token.php): failed to open stream: Permission denied

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 107

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 107
Function: fopen

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 79
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, bool given

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 108

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 108
Function: fwrite

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 79
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fclose() expects parameter 1 to be resource, bool given

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 109

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 109
Function: fclose

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 79
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 49
Function: getAccessToken

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: Creating default object from empty value

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 56

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 56
Function: _error_handler

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fopen(jsapi_ticket.php): failed to open stream: Permission denied

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 107

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 107
Function: fopen

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 58
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, bool given

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 108

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 108
Function: fwrite

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 58
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: fclose() expects parameter 1 to be resource, bool given

Filename: php/jssdk.php

Line Number: 109

Backtrace:

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 109
Function: fclose

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 58
Function: set_php_file

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/php/jssdk.php
Line: 12
Function: getJsApiTicket

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/views/home/memberDetail/memberDetail.html
Line: 4
Function: getSignPackage

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/application/controllers/home/IndexController.php
Line: 787
Function: view

File: /data/wwwroot/www.cclitr.com/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

  1. 首页 >
  2. 理论研究 >
  3. 作家评论

吴思敬:为诗坛摆渡 与新诗同行

来源:光明日报 发布日期:2023-01-20

微信图片_20230120102248.jpg

吴思敬   光明图片

【文艺人物志】

他是学界公认的新诗摆渡者。他在中国新诗及理论研究领域耕耘数十载,努力为中国新诗厘清发展脉络;他所编辑的刊物引领了中国新诗理论建设;他不遗余力发现和培养青年诗人、持续关注新的诗歌现象并加以推动。

日前,“改革开放四十年中国新诗理论建设——吴思敬诗学思想研究”研讨会在京举行,众多专家学者会聚一堂,研讨吴思敬的学术道路与诗学关怀。

“我可以说是一名在诗坛工作了几十年的义工。”吴思敬说。事实上,吴思敬是当代少有的一位一直伴随着新诗发展成长的学者。他出版了十余部新诗理论与批评专著,挖掘了众多诗人,更深度参与了“朦胧诗”“第三代诗”“90年代诗歌”和“新世纪诗歌”发展的全过程。作为学界公认的新诗摆渡者,他不仅是诗人的朋友,为新诗不懈地奔走发声,还致力于阐发中国新诗理论的现代品格。

“《论语》说‘君子有九思’,其中的‘事思敬’,就是我名字的来源,我也把这当作对自己的要求,干什么都要踏踏实实、兢兢业业。”吴思敬说,自己多年来一直没有离开诗歌这个“事”。

从20世纪70年代末起,吴思敬在菜厂胡同7号的“陋室”,一直是诗人和诗评家们常常光顾的地方。“我们既聊诗歌上的收获,也聊自己在诗歌上跌的跤。”在缺乏诗歌的年代,吴思敬与“工人诗人”王恩宇等人成为好友,在昏暗的灯光、一间小平房、两张小板凳的环境下,谈诗歌,谈创作。

1980年,《诗刊》社在北京东郊召开了全国诗歌理论座谈会——“定福庄会议”。在会前,吴思敬已在《北京日报》上发表《要允许“不好懂”的诗存在》,为青年诗人的创作呼唤生存的权利;在会上吴思敬与谢冕、孙绍振一起坚定站在少数支持“朦胧诗”的一方,为当时饱受争议的“朦胧诗”发声,一向温文尔雅的他,成了“急先锋”。吴思敬历数诗歌变革的必要性,坚持为诗学变革辩护。随后,吴思敬陆续发表了《时代的进步与现代诗》《说“朦胧”》《新诗讨论与诗歌的批评标准》等一系列支持“朦胧诗潮”的文章,还为顾城、江河等朦胧诗人写了最早的评论。

吴思敬善于从诗歌美学的角度考察把握新生代诗人的创作特点。20世纪80年代中期,很多人从社会、政治甚至道德层面对“第三代诗”进行批判,而吴思敬则从诗歌美学角度出发,既肯定其成绩,也指出口语诗、生活流诗所存在的问题:“照相式的叙述,市民趣味与市民心态的堆积,引起读者的‘非诗’批评也就很自然了。”其公允的观点经受住了新诗发展的考验。

除了用诗歌美学分析研究诗歌,吴思敬还注意从不同诗人的创作中发现中国新诗发展的主流。譬如,通过北岛、舒婷等“朦胧诗人”,海子、西川、韩东、于坚等“第三代诗人”,20世纪90年代涌现的新诗人等以自由体诗为主要创作方式的现象,吴思敬提出“自由体”诗是中国新诗创作的主要形式,“不定型”成为中国新诗发展的新传统。

正如谢冕所说,吴思敬是诗坛的一位“大好人”。吴思敬考虑到新时期以来的诗歌主要是以团体或流派的方式流传,为了保护那些没有流派、团体依托,在诗坛上“单打独斗”的诗人,特别提出了“中生代”的概念,可见其胸怀。在当代新诗理论与批评发展的重要关口,吴思敬参与了由谢冕等创办的百年新诗第一个诗学理论丛刊——《诗探索》的编辑工作,其中也不乏艰难挑战,但是吴思敬始终努力承担,该刊四十余年的办刊史浓缩着吴思敬的心血。

不论是诗歌研究还是主办诗歌理论刊物,吴思敬一直坚持为诗人们搭建桥梁和平台。譬如,他发起举办了诸多诗人和诗歌理论的研讨会,与林莽等首创了校园驻校诗人制度,还用诗歌评奖等激励方式扶持青年:“不是评出获奖诗人、颁奖了事,而是切实地爱护、关心获奖诗人,让他们能够有进一步提升的空间,在社会上发挥更大的作用。”

吴思敬是新世纪以来较早关注到草根诗人、“网红”诗人、“打工诗人”等现象的诗歌理论家。这与他强调新诗的“人间性”,要介入现实、关注弱势群体有关。同时,吴思敬也表示“底层不是标签,草根诗人也不是桂冠”,写作一定要遵循诗歌的美学原则。

新诗,常常被视为对传统诗歌的某种“反叛”,但吴思敬认为,新诗始终是在传统与现代间行进,新的诗学文化来自传统的母体又不同于传统,受外来诗学文化的触发又并非外来文化的翻版,它植根于过去的回忆,更立足于现代的追求,是一种全新的创造。

“对新诗的要求,也可以用杜甫的指标。”儿时家里悬挂的杜甫诗句的对联,以及父亲经常吟诵的古诗是吴思敬最早的诗歌记忆,杜甫也是他最喜爱的诗人。吴思敬至今还记得19岁时聆听诗人冯至在纪念杜甫1250周年大会上所作的《纪念伟大的诗人杜甫》的报告。吴思敬认为,要评价一首诗的思想内容和艺术高度,诗歌评论家首先应该有杜甫“不薄今人爱古人”的博大胸怀,而“语不惊人死不休”也应该是所有诗人的座右铭。杜甫爱人、爱诗、爱国的情怀,一直影响着吴思敬学术道路的抉择。

在吴思敬看来,通往诗歌的路上并不总是洒满阳光,伟大的诗人、杰出的诗篇也是可遇而不可求的,但诗永远是文学、艺术的最高形式,它伴随着人类的成长,无时不在,无处不在。

如今,年逾80岁的吴思敬依然保持着巨大的热情,正在主持教育部人文社科基地的重大学术工程——六卷本、数百万字的“百年新诗学案”,一直关注着新的诗歌现象并加以推动,坚持为诗坛摆渡,与新诗同行。

(作者:谢云开)